The Journal of Nanotoxicology and Nanomedicine (JNN) publishes key research that addresses the potential opportunities, hazards, and risks associated with. Nanotoxicology | Citations: | The journal invites contributions addressing research into the interactions between nano-structured materials and living matter. Instant formatting template for Nanotoxicology guidelines. Download formatted paper in docx and LaTeX formats. Find journal impact factor, acceptance rate and.
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Small particles usually form aggregates.
Their aerodynamic size determines the deposition in the airways. After deposition, they may deagglomerate.
Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
This simple statement outlined two nanotoxicology journal aspects of materials that potentially mediated their toxicology: In follow-up studies, further associations between material physicochemistry and effects were uncovered—most notably the role of particle surface area in mediating pulmonary toxicity.
However, more chemically active materials such as crystalline quartz demonstrated a markedly different dose-response Maynard and Kuempel, This early research was driven by occupational aerosol exposures and concerns that the hazards associated with fine dusts ranging from welding fume to metal and metal aerosol powders were not predictable from the chemical composition of these materials alone.
What began to emerge was an understanding that the physicochemical nature of inhaled particles was more relevant than previously thought in eliciting a response and that materials with a nanometer-scale biologically accessible structure whether they were discrete nanometer-scale nanotoxicology journal or had a nanometer-scale surface structure, as in nanotoxicology journal case of aggregates of nanoparticles had the potential to show previously unrecognized biological behavior.
Starting with the six-cities study Dockery et al.
Nanotoxicology (journal) - Wikipedia
As small particles were implicated in eliciting more pronounced pulmonary and cardiovascular effects following inhalation exposure Seaton et al. Although clear associations between ultrafine particle exposure and health impacts remained uncertain, this research was suggestive of a link between aerosol inhalation and health impacts that was mediated by nanotoxicology journal size as well as chemistry, with smaller particles exhibiting a higher degree of potency.
In this respect, epidemiological studies began nanotoxicology journal complement contemporary toxicology studies on inhalation exposure to fine particles.
One successful approach has involved the production of nano-particles of Iridium Ir. This radio-isotope is an emitter of nanotoxicology journal and gamma radiation with a half life of 74 days and can be monitored in tissue.
Nano-particles can be produced by generating a high voltage spark nanotoxicology journal two iridium electrodes. Iridium labelled carbon nano-particles can be produced by substituting a carbon electrode for one of the iridium electrodes.
The primary particles produced are of about 4 nm diameter but these soon aggregate to produce larger particles. The extent of aggregation can be controlled by nanotoxicology journal the flow of inert gas through the system. Particles of 15 and 80 nm diameter have been used by Kreyling et al.
Computer Modelling Studies of Condensed Matter Home
Iridium is a hard metal, few if nanotoxicology journal are harder, and effectively insoluble in body fluids even when presented in nano-form. Presentation in this form provides a large surface area per unit mass and is stern test of insolubility.
What happens to these particles in the lung? It has been shown that they are cleared rapidly from the lung but, importantly, that they do not translocate efficiently into the blood nanotoxicology journal.
It is indeed surprising because it has been thought that nano-particles pass easily across the lung to the blood: Rather oddly, this assumption is at odds with nanotoxicology journal theory of filtration of particles: This, by the way, explains the extensive trapping of nano-particles of less than 10 nm diameter by the nose and pharynx.
Whether other nano-particles are also held back, rather effectively, by the air—blood barrier remains to nanotoxicology journal seen. Of course if nano-particle aggregated in the lining fluid of the alveoli the likelihood of uptake by macrophages would nanotoxicology journal increased and there is some evidence that this occurs 34 Interaction between nano-particles and the surfactant film that lies on the surface of the alveolar cells has received some attention.
Damage to the surfactant film, characterised by impairment of the capacity of the film to expand, has also been nanotoxicology journal This is clearly, or at least potentially, important: The low surface tension of the surfactant film is also thought to be important for limiting transudation of fluid from the interstitium to the alveolar surface.
The limited translocation of nano-particles to the blood is at odds with the well established finding that nano-particles translocate effectively to the interstitium nanotoxicology journal the lung It has been suggested that some secondary clearance from the interstitium back to the airway surface occurs as part of the process of clearing nano-particles from the lung.
The present author and colleagues have recently hypothesised that nano-particles might well penetrate into Type I alveolar cells, induce apoptosis of these cells and then be cleared with the cellular debris by macrophages
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