MARCO ANNEO LUCANO, BELLUM CIVILE (PHARSALIA), LIBRO IV (Studi Latini 70). Naples: Loffredo Editore, Pp. isbn € Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Additionally, the later books of Pharsalia are anti-Imperial and pro-Republic. This criticism of Nero and office of the Emperor may have been the. MARCO ANNEO LUCANO, BELLUM CIVILE (PHARSALIA), LIBRO IV (Studi Latini 70). Naples: Loffredo Editore, Pp. isbn €
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He plans pharsalia lucano regroup and heroically marches the army across Africa to join forces with King Juba, a trek that occupies most of the middle section of the book.
Pharsalia Research Papers -
On the way, he passes an oracle but refuses to consult it, citing Stoic principles. Caesar visits Troy and pays respects to his ancestral gods.
A short time later he arrives pharsalia lucano Egypt; when Pharaoh's messenger presents him with the head of Pompey, Caesar feigns grief to hide his joy at Pompey's death. Caesar arrives in Egypt, where he is beguiled by the Pharaoh's sister Cleopatra. A banquet is held; Pharsalia lucano, Ptolemy's cynical and bloodthirsty chief minister, plots an assassination of Caesar but is killed in his surprise attack pharsalia lucano the palace.
Pharsalia - M. Annaei Lucani - Google Buku
A second attack comes from Ganymede, an Egyptian noble, and the poem breaks off abruptly as Caesar is fighting for his life. Completeness[ edit ] Susanna Braund pharsalia lucano that, were the poem to have been finished, it would have ended with Cato 's death. Almost all scholars agree that the Pharsalia as we now have it is unfinished.
There is, however, some debate as to whether the poem was unfinished at the time of Lucan's death, or if the final few books of the work were lost at some pharsalia lucano. Braund notes that there is little evidence one way or the other, and that this question must "remain a matter of speculation.
However, both of these hypotheses seem unlikely, as they would have required Lucan to pen a work many times larger than what is extant for instance, the ten-book poem we have today covers a total of 20 months time, so it seems unlikely that, were the poet to have continued his pace, that his work would cover a 6 to 17 year time-span.
However, this too has its problems, namely that Lucan would have been required to introduce and rapidly develop characters to replace Pompey and Cato.
File:Lucano, Pharsalia, edizione del 1592.jpg
It also might have given the work a "happy ending", which seems tonally inconsistent with the poem as a whole. The biggest internal argument for this is that in his sixth book Lucan features a necromantic ritual that parallels and inverts many of the motifs found in Virgil's sixth book which details Pharsalia lucano consultation with the Sibyl and his subsequent descent into the underworld.
And if the book were to be 12 books long, Braund pharsalia lucano that it would have ended with the death of Cato, and his subsequent apotheosis as a Stoic hero.
Masters devotes an entire chapter to this hypothesis pharsalia lucano his book Poetry and Civil War in Lucan's Bellum Civilearguing that by being open-ended and ambiguous, the poem's conclusion avoids "any kind of resolution, but [still] preserves the unconventional premises of its subject-matter: Lucan frequently appropriates ideas from Virgil's epic and "inverts" them to undermine their original, heroic purpose.
Sextus' visit to the Thracian witch Erichtho provides an example; the scene and language clearly reference Aeneas' descent into the underworld also in Book VIbut while Virgil's description highlights optimism toward the future glories of Rome under Augustan rule, Lucan uses the scene to present a bitter and gory pessimism concerning the loss of liberty under the coming empire.
Like all Silver Age pharsalia lucano, Lucan received the rhetorical training common to upper-class young men of the period.
The suasoria — a school exercise where students wrote speeches advising an historical figure on a course of action — no doubt inspired Pharsalia lucano to compose pharsalia lucano of the speeches found in the text.
Quintilian singles out Lucan as a writer clarissimus sententiis — "most famous for his sententiae", and for this reason magis oratoribus quam poetis imitandus — " he is to be imitated more by orators than poets".
pharsalia lucano Finally, in another break with Golden Age literary techniques, Lucan is fond of discontinuity. He presents his narrative as a series of discrete episodes often without any transitional or scene-changing lines, much like the sketches of myth strung together in Ovid's Metamorphoses.
The poem pharsalia lucano more naturally organized on principles such as aesthetic balance or correspondence of scenes between books rather than the need to follow a story from a single narrative point of view.
Lucan - Wikipedia
Lucan was considered among the ranks of Homer and Virgil. Themes[ edit ] Horrors of civil war[ edit ] Lucan emphasizes the despair of his topic in the poem's first seven lines the same length as the opening to Virgil's Aeneid: Wars worse than civil on Emathian plains, and crime let loose we sing; how Rome's high race plunged in her vitals her victorious sword; armies akin embattled, with the force of all the shaken earth bent on the fray; and burst asunder, to the common guilt, a kingdom's compact; eagle with eagle met, standard to standard, spear opposed to spear.
Far from glorious, the battle scenes are portraits of bloody horror, where nature is ravaged pharsalia lucano build terrible siege engines and wild animals tear mercilessly at the flesh of the dead perhaps reflecting the taste of pharsalia lucano audience accustomed to the bloodlust of gladiatorial games.
Flawed characters[ edit ] Most of the main characters featured in the Pharsalia are terribly flawed and unattractive. Caesar, for instance, is presented as a successful military leader, but he strikes fear into the hearts of people and is extremely destructive.
There is, however, some debate as to whether the poem was unfinished at the time of Lucan's death, or if the final few books of the work were lost at some point. Braund notes that there is little evidence one way or the other, and that this question must "remain a matter of speculation.
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