consumo de tabaco por mulheres observado em todo o mundo Uso de tabaco cerebral, aterosclerose, e morte por aneurisma de aorta IIDiretor do Núcleo de Estudos para Tratamento do Tabagismo - NETT. Instituto de A disfunção endotelial é a manifestação primária da aterosclerose. Contexto: A aterosclerose carotídea apresenta alta prevalência populacional e com idade ≥ 64 anos, acidente vascular cerebral, obesidade e tabagismo.


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Biomarcadores de função endotelial em doenças cardiovasculares: hipertensão

A high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in the population and its frequent association with several risk factors contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates.

To investigate frequency and association of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis with age, sex, hypertension, ischemic coronary disease, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, carotid occlusion, intima-media thickness and tabagismo aterosclerose. The carotid and bilateral extracranial arteries of individuals males and femaleswith a mean of 63 years of tabagismo aterosclerose years were evaluated via anamnesis, clinical semiology and ultrasonography.

The frequency of carotid atherosclerosis and intima-media thickness was, respectively, 52 tabagismo aterosclerose Atherosclerosis, carotid stenosis, ultrasonography, Doppler, risk factors.

Introduction Atherosclerosis is a degenerative disease of a multiple-cause etiology. Several diseases may affect the carotid arteries of men and women, from birth to old age.

The others are represented by non-atherosclerotic diseases, such as kinking,Takayasu's arteritis, fibromuscular dysplasia, extrinsic compressions, intima dissection, aneurysm, and trauma.

Distribution of age and gender of the sample is shown in Table 1. Inclusion criteria were age between 35 and 91 years and agreement to participate in the tabagismo aterosclerose after signing a consent term.

No individuals were excluded, therefore all received a complete evaluation by anamnesis, clinical semiology and ultrasound examinations of extracranial carotid arteries bilaterally by a single examiner. Anamnesis Anamnesis was performed by usual clinical observation of complaints and duration, followed by tabagismo aterosclerose of current disease history, interrogation of different devices, and personal and family history.

Emphasis was given on ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, intermittent claudication of the lower limbs, strokes, and transient ischemic attack TIA.

These tabagismo aterosclerose were obtained from information provided by the individuals or their escorts. Register tabagismo aterosclerose blood pressures Blood pressure measurements were performed according to a specific protocol. Calculation of the ankle-brachial index Calculation of the ABI was performed according to a specific protocol.

The IMC was quantified only in common carotid arteries bilaterally.

Biomarcadores de função endotelial em doenças cardiovasculares: hipertensão

Statistical analysis As the responses are dichotomic, a logistic regression model was proposed tabagismo aterosclerose data analysis. Odds ratio was the suggested model. Stratification according to age into age groups of approximately 64 years was proposed based on epidemiological studies for carotid atherosclerosis.

The ultrasound study tabagismo aterosclerose these systems showed parietal lesions represented by IMT, protruded atheromas tabagismo aterosclerose the arterial lumen with stenoses of varied dimensions and kinkings with or without significant hemodynamic changes.

IMT, present in There was no association with claudication, female gender, diabetes, TIA, stroke, obesity, smoking, and ischemic heart disease Table 5.


With regard to peripheral tabagismo aterosclerose arterial disease, 31 8. Discussion Carotid atherosclerosis and common carotid IMT primary variables may have correlation with systemic hypertension and ischemic arterial diseases, among them ischemic heart disease, mesenteric ischemia and intermittent claudication.

The main risk factors are age, gender, genetic predisposition, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, homocysteinemia, and tabagismo aterosclerose infection.


Genetic predisposition, hyperlipidemia, homocysteinemia, and infection were not included in this study. When these results were compared with similar studies and populations by other authors there were similarities regarding the power tabagismo aterosclerose association between carotid atherosclerosis and risk factors age, obesity, smokingstroke, carotid artery occlusion, and ischemic heart disease.

Diabetes mellitus had frequency of Stroke was tabagismo aterosclerose in this study by anamnesis and had frequency of 7.

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