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X RAY CULLITY EBOOK

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X RAY CULLITY EBOOK


Elements of X-Ray Diffraction: Pearson New International Edition : B. D. Cullity :

This technique had its beginnings in von Laue's discovery in that crystals diffract x-rays, the manner of the diffraction revealing thestructure of the crystal. At first, x-ray diffraction was used only for thedetermination of crystal structure.

Later on, however, other uses weredeveloped, and today the method is applied, not only to structure deter-mination, but to such diverse problems as chemical analysis and stressmeasurement, to the study of phase equilibria and the measurement ofparticle size, to the determination of the orientation of one crystal or theensemble of orientations in a polycrystalline aggregate.

The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader who has no previousknowledge of the subject with the theory x ray cullity x-ray diffraction, the experi-mental methods involved, and the main applications. X ray cullity the authoris a metallurgist, the majority of these applications are described in termsof metals and alloys.

Elements of X-ray diffraction / B.D. Cullity by Cullity, B. D. (Bernard Dennis) -

However, little or no modification of experimentalmethod is required for the examinatiorrof nonmetallic materials, inasmuchas the physical principles involved do not depend on the material investi-gated.

This book should therefore be useful to metallurgists, chemists,physicists, ceramists, x ray cullity, etc. Members of this group, unlike x-ray crystallographers, are not normallyconcerned with the determination of complex crystal structures.

For thisreason the rotating-crystal method and space-group theory, the two chieftools in the solution of such structures, are described only briefly. This is a book of principles and methods intended for the student, andnot a reference book for the advanced research worker.

x ray cullity

X RAY CULLITY EBOOK

Thus no metal-lurgical data are given beyond those necessary x ray cullity illustrate the diffractionmethods involved. For example, the theory and practice of determiningpreferred orientation are treated in detail, but the reasons for preferredorientation, the conditions affecting its development, and actual orien-tations found in specific metals and alloys are not described, because thesetopics are adequately covered in existing books.

In short, x-ray diffrac-tion is stressed rather than metallurgy. The book is divided into x ray cullity main parts: The subject of crystal structure is approachedthrough, and based on, the concept of the point lattice Bravais lattice ,because the point lattice of a substance is so closely related to its diffrac- PREFACEX-ray diffraction is a tool for the investigation of the fine structure ofmatter.

The subject of crystal structure is approachedthrough, and based on, the concept of the point lattice Bravais lattice ,because the point lattice of a substance is so closely related to its diffrac- VI PREFACEtion pattern.

The entire book is written in terms x ray cullity the Bragg law andcan be read without any knowledge of the reciprocal lattice. However, abrief treatment of reciprocal-lattice x ray cullity is given in an appendix for thosewho wish to pursue the subject further.

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The methods of calculating theintensities of diffracted beams are introduced early in the book and usedthroughout. Since a rigorous derivation of many of the equations for dif-fracted intensity is too lengthy and complex a matter for a book of thiskind, I have preferred a semiquantitative approach which, although it doesnot furnish a rigorous x ray cullity of the final result, at least makes it physicallyreasonable.

This preference is based on my conviction that it is betterfor a student to grasp the physical reality behind a mathematical equationthan to be able to glibly reproduce an involved mathematical derivationof whose physical meaning he is only dimly aware.

Chapters on chemical analysis by diffraction and fluorescence have beenincluded because of the present industrial importance of these analyticalmethods. In Chapter 7 the diffractometer, the newest instrument for dif-fraction experiments, is described in x ray cullity detail ; here the material on thevarious kinds of counters and their associated circuits x ray cullity be useful,not only to those engaged in diffraction work, but also to those workingwith radioactive tracers or similar substances who wish to know how theirmeasuring instruments operate.

Each chapter includes a set of problems.

Elements of X-ray Diffraction - Bernard Dennis Cullity - Google книги

Many of these have beenchosen to amplify and x ray cullity particular topics discussed in the text, andas such they form an integral part of the book. Chapter 18 contains an annotated list of books suitable for further study.

The reader should become familiar with at least a few of these, as he pro-gresses through this book, in order that he may know where to turn foradditional information. Like any author of x ray cullity technical book, I am greatly indebted to previouswriters on this and allied subjects.

X RAY CULLITY EBOOK

I must also acknowledge my gratitudeto two of my former teachers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Professor B.

Warren and Professor John T.

Professor Warren has kindlyallowed me to use many problems of his devising, and the advice andencouragement of Professor Norton has been invaluable. My colleague atNotre Dame, Professor G.



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